Toxic Drugs Weapons, Industry / Health / Armament

Covid-19 and the medical-industrial complex

Sure From the order of

By David Livingstone, the 3 avril 2021

[Added subtitles]

Public-private partnerships

In January 2019, Former billionaire crook-philanthropist Bill Gates tells CNBC that, invest in global health organizations, aimed at improving access to vaccines, created a return of 20 times the economic benefits [in investment]. [1]

The 15 May 2020, officially, President Donald Trump announced Operation Warp Speed.

Opération Warp Speed

An operation that aims to develop and provide 300 million doses of a vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019, by January 2021.

And, President Trump is hiring a large number of biotech companies linked to the Bill and Melinda Gate Foundation; dont Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca, Novavax, Merck, Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline and Modern.

Operation Warp Speed ​​is formed as a public-private partnership, to gain approval and speed up vaccine production, during the COVID-19 pandemic. [2]

In other words, the aim is to prepare the ground for ‘a global pharmaceutical-industrial complex’ imminent.

Medico-industrial complex

The concept of the medical-industrial complex is a variation of Eisenhower's famous exit speech.

The term is first put forward by Barbara and John Ehrenreich in November 1969 and later in a book called: ‘The American Health Empire: Power, Profits, and Politics‘.

For years 1970, the concept was the subject of much debate.

In 1980, it is popularized by Arnold Seymour Relman, while he was editor-in-chief of ‘New England Journal of Medicine.

And, he commented, what follows:

‘The last decade has seen the emergence of a different kind of private" industrial complex ", with an equally important potential, influence on public policies.’


Operation Warp Speed ​​began with funding of approximately 10 billion dollars under the CARES Act (Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security) is adopted by Congress on 27 mars.

An interagency program that included private companies and components of the Department of Health and Social Services, dont les Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), la Food and Drug Administration, les National Institutes of Health et le Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), the Ministry of Defense and other federal agencies.

Moreover, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Department of Energy and the Department of Veterans Affairs are included.


BARDA is created and authorized by the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act [the law on preparedness for a pandemic and all risks], in 2006.

She is responsible for the acquisition and development of medical countermeasures, mainly against bioterrorism; which includes chemical threats, organic, radiological and nuclear (CBRN), as well as the influenza pandemic and emerging diseases.

Operation Warp Speed ​​and Conflicts of Interest?

In May 2020, leading Operation Warp Speed, Trump appoints Moncef Slaoui, the former head of GlaxoSmithKline's vaccine department (GSK).

Before, Slaoui not be fired for serious ‘’ allegations of sexual harassment in March 2021, Senator Elizabeth Warren draws attention to manifest conflict of interest vis-à-vis Slaoui.

The conflict of interest regarding his property of more than 10 million dollars in stock options in Moderna and his new position; while, the government invested 483 million dollars in company to contribute to coronavirus vaccine trials. [3]

Bill Foundation & Melinda Gates

Modern, like Pfizer, AstraZeneca et Johnson & Johnson, the main manufacturers of the COVID-19 vaccine, are all funded companies, or supported, by the Bill Foundation & Melinda Gates.

It is the largest charitable foundation in the world.

She holds 46,8 billion dollars in assets.

Pendant, that Bill Gates managed to repair his reputation as a petty crook, thanks to his enormous contributions, its charitable foundations have long served as a front-line for corporate programs.

This ruse was orchestrated by John D. Rockefeller, grandfather of Gates' mentor, David rockefeller.

Founded in 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation was a notable contributor to the birth of eugenics.

She acted as, main funder of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Germany.

Which gave rise to the barbaric eugenic policies of the Nazis. [4]

Who leads the dance?

In 1953, Norman Paul Dodd worked as a financial advisor.

And, he was chief investigator for the Special Committee on Tax-Exempt Foundations (commonly referred to as the Reece Committee), which was chaired by the US Congressman, B. Carroll Reece.

Dodd said many foundations are deliberately campaigning to involve the United States in wars such as World War I.

In addition, they looked for ways to distort the teaching of American history by explicitly controlling the education system in the United States.

Dodd's claims have become the cornerstone of theories involving the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation; and, according to now, the modern classic book by Frances Stonor Saunders, ‘Who leads the dance?: the CIA and the cultural cold war‘, they were the main vectors of the secret financing of the CIA.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

CDC, together form a United States National Public Health Agency.

This agency evolved from the Communicable Disease Center founded on July 1 1946; who, succeeds the Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities Malaria Control Program in WWII Conflict Areas [National Defense Office of Malaria Control Activities].

Before its foundation, organizations with global influence in the fight against malaria were the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and the Rockefeller Foundation [League of Nations Malaria Commission and the Rockefeller Foundation].

The Rockefeller Foundation has greatly supported the fight against malaria.

She sought to have some of her efforts taken over by governments and she collaborated with the agency. [5]

In 1967, it became the National Communicable Disease Center [National Center for Communicable Diseases] (NCDC) et en 1970, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

The CDC Foundation, which operates independently of the CDC as a private non-profit organization, has been authorized by Article 399F of the Law on Public Health Services.

Since, it supports the CDC's mission in partnership with the private sector, including organizations, foundations, companies, educational groups, and individuals.

Conflict of interest?

Jeanne Lenzer, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of ‘British Medical Journal’ indicates that, CDC donations do not represent a conflict of interest.

Despite this assertion, she writes the following in 2015.

“The agency receives millions of dollars in donations and industry funding, directly and indirectly.

And, several recent actions and recommendations by the CDC agency have raised questions about the science it cites, the clinical guidelines it promotes and the money it invests.’ [6]

Tom Peace, director of the CDC agency 2009 at 2017, explained to BMJ:

‘Public-private partnerships allow CDCs to do more, faster.

The core values ​​of the agency which, are the responsibility, respect and integrity, guide how the CDC spends the funds entrusted to it.

When possible conflicts of interest arise, we take careful consideration to make sure the proper policies and guidelines are followed, before accepting outside donations. [7]

In June 2019, Frieden pleaded guilty to public disorder, At New York.

In 2018, he faced forced touching charges, third degree sexual abuse and second degree harassment; more, they were abandoned.

Frieden released a statement shortly after his arrest, stating that the allegations ‘did not reflect’ his "public or private behavior or values". [8]

Moderna Inc.

Modern, an American pharmaceutical and biotechnology company based in Cambridge, is the most valuable private biotechnology company in the United States. [9]

Messenger RNA

Moderna focuses on drug discovery, drug development and vaccine technologies based on messenger RNA (MRNA – messenger RNA).

Moderna's technology platform inserts mRNA modified by synthetic nucleosides (MRNA) in human cells using a coating of lipid nanoparticles.

Ensuite, this mRNA, reprograms cells to trigger immune responses.

This is a new technique; who, has been discontinued by other manufacturers due to concerns about the toxicity of lipid nanoparticles at high or frequent doses. [10]

In 2010, ModeRNA Therapeutics was created to commercialize Derrick Rossi's research, a stem cell biologist.

Rossi develops a method for modifying mRNA, by first transfecting it into human cells.

Then, it is dedifferentiated into bone marrow stem cells; which ones, could then be differentiated according to the desired target cell types.

Rossi contacted Tim Springer, Harvard University faculty member, who solicited a co-investment from Kenneth R. Dog, Robert Langer and venture capital firm Flagship Ventures.

In March 2013, Moderna’s fate is transformed by signing an exclusive five-year option agreement with AstraZeneca to discover, develop and commercialize mRNA for therapeutic treatments of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic, renal, and in selected targets in the field of cancer.

The agreement included an upfront payment of 240 million dollars to Moderna, a payment that was l’un des plus gros paiements initiaux jamais réalisés dans un accord de licence de l’industrie pharmaceutique et n’impliquant pas un médicament déjà testé dans des essais cliniques, and eight percent share in Moderna. [11]

Toxic environment

In 2016, une enquête de STAT a révélé que, Moderna's toxic work environment has driven, for years, the best talents; due, of the ego of its CEO, Stéphane Bancel who rose through the ranks of pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly.

Finally, he led the Belgian operation of the company.

Then, he becomes the CEO of the French diagnostic company, bioMérieux.

At least a dozen high-level executives have resigned in the previous four years, including finance officers, of technology, of manufacturing and science.

An example is the hiring of renowned Joseph Bolen, who came on board in 2013 to lead Research and Development efforts (R&D) of Modern.

More, in 2016, he resigns abruptly.

A person close to the company at the time said:

«Aucun scientifique sain d’esprit ne quitterait cet emploi, à moins qu’il y ait quelque chose qui ne va pas avec la science ou le personnel.» [12]

A very secret society

The company has not released any data to support its much-vaunted technology.

And, it is so secret that some candidates must sign non-disclosure agreements before showing up for an interview.

When Moderna transferred its first two potential vaccines to human trials in 2016, leaders did not disclose the diseases targeted by vaccines.

And, they did not list the studies in the federal public registry,

Peter Kolchinsky, qui détient une participation dans la société RA Capital Management, said:

'We think that, when the world has a chance to see Moderna, il verra quelque chose de bien plus vaste dans sa portée que personne n’a vu auparavant.[13]

In February 2016, the editorial Nature criticizes Moderna for not publishing peer-reviewed articles on its technology; while, most other emerging and established biotech companies do.

And, he compared his approach to that of Theranos, which has failed in a controversial way. [14]

In September 2018, Thrillist posted an article titled "Why this secret tech startup could be the next Theranos." [15]

He criticized his reputation for secrecy and lack of scientific validation, or independent peer review.

And this, although having the highest value by contribution to any private biotechnology company in the United States, amounting to more than 5 billions of dollars. [11] [33]

A former Moderna scientist told Stat:

‘This is a case of the Emperor's new clothes.

They run an investment company; and, let's hope so, [that they] are also developing a successful drug.’ [16]

Moderna on the stock market

In 2018, the company is renamed ‘Moderna Inc.’.

And, it has further expanded its portfolio in vaccine development.

In December 2018, Moderna became the largest biotechnology IPO in history, levant 621 million dollars on NASDAQ and involving an overall valuation of 7,5 billion dollars for society as a whole. [17]

At the end 2019, SEC filings showed Moderna racked up losses of 1,5 billion dollars since its inception, with a loss of 514 million dollars in 2019 only.

And, she lifted 3,2 billion dollars in equity since 2010. [18]

WITH [Massachusetts Institute of Technology]

The Koch Institute ‘Integrated’ on MIT Cancer [Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research].

Bobert Langer

Bobert Langer, the founder of Moderna, works closely with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Langer, the most cited engineer in history, holds more than 1 400 patents granted or pending and he is a prolific entrepreneur, having participated in the foundation of more than 40 biotechnology companies, dont Modern.

Moderna's latest stock surge, due to worldwide sales of its Covid-19 vaccine, made Langer a billionaire.

He is the third Moderna shareholder to cross the threshold of 1 billion dollars in 2020. [19]

Langer's research lab at MIT is the world's largest biomedical engineering lab, with over 10 million dollars in annual grants and over 100 researchers.

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research

Moreover, Langer is a faculty member of the Harvard-MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology and the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research..

The Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research is a cancer research center, affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (WITH).

In October 2007, the Institute is launched with a grant from 100 million dollars by David Hamilton Koch.

And, in December 2010, the research center of 180 000 square feet (17 000 m2) opened, replacing the Cancer Research Center (CCR) you with. [20]

MIT Media Lab

In August 2019, Langer is one of the signatories of an online letter in defense of the director of MIT Media Lab, Joi Ito.

Joi Ito resigned from his post at MIT, the Harvard, of the John D Foundation. and Catherine T. MacArthur, of the Knight Foundation, of Pure Tech Health and the New York Times Company, following allegations of financial ties to Epstein.

Evgeny Morozov has suggested that John Brockman was the "intellectual facilitator" who made it possible for such eminent academics to partner with Epstein, as Ito and Marvin Minsky.

In the years 1950, Minsky founded the artificial intelligence project [AI] at MIT, a computer predecessor of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory school (CSAIL). [21]

The Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Former MIT President Jerome Wiesner, the founder of Cybernetics.

Since 1988, the laboratory gained popularity, when Stewart Brand, Brockman's longtime partner, has published ‘The Media Lab: Inventing the Future au MIT’.

Where Langer said:

“For me, the great things he did for MIT and for the world – far outweigh the bad things.” [22]

Bill Gates & Jeffrey Epstein

As well, Bill Gates started a regular friendship with Epstein, after being convicted of sex crimes.

In addition, Gates Foundation employees made several visits to Epstein's mansion.

Towards 2011, Epstein spoke to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and JPMorgan Chase about the creation of the Global Health Investment Fund [GHIF].

The GHIF is a multi-billion dollar charitable fund project to provide ‘Individual and institutional investors the possibility of financing global health technologies, with the potential to save millions of lives in low-income countries.’ [23]

The same year, participants spot Gates and Epstein engaged in a private conversation, during a conference TED (Technology, Entertainment and Design) in Long Beach, in California.

In 2013, Gates flies on the ‘Lolita Express’ by Epstein from Teterboro Airport in New Jersey to Palm Beach, in Florida, according to a flight manifesto.

In October 2014, Gates donated 2 million dollars to the Media Lab. [24]

CEPI [Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations]

Dictating the global agenda for health and agriculture

A major study published in 2016 by the independent Global Policy Forum, which oversees the work of United Nations bodies and global policy making, warned that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation and others wield increasing influence in political decision-making.

And, that they drive the global agenda for health and agriculture in developing countries.

According to the study, the donor, by far the most important, is the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; who, gave 2,6 billion dollars in 2012, against 1,2 billion dollars on America's nine largest trusts.

The study claims that many foundations enable rich countries and their companies to achieve their own ends in developing countries; by setting up public-private partnerships with pharmaceutical companies, that promote certain types of corporate agriculture and the use of biotechnology for health and agriculture. [25]

World Economic Forum, Gates, And we took OMS

In 2017, during the World Economic Forum in Davos (WEF), Gates launched CEPI, la Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, in collaboration with the governments of Norway, turkey, from Japan and Germany. As well as, the UK's Wellcome Trust which is the fourth richest charitable foundation in the world.

CEPI, which focuses on the WHO "priority disease plan", has been identified as a "key player in the race to develop a vaccine" against Coronavirus disease in 2019. [26]

Tedros Adhanom, Gates and WHO

The 30 January 2020, Tedros Adhanom, WHO Director-General has declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern or PHIEC.

This event comes two days after Tedros met the Chinese president, Xi Jinping, in Beijing.

They discussed the dramatic increase in severe cases by novel coronavirus in Wuhan; and, in the surrounding areas which have reached dramatic proportions.

Adhanom became head of WHO in 2017.

Until 2016, Il a été ministre des Affaires étrangères de l’Éthiopie.

He met Bill Gates when he was Ethiopia's Minister of Health and became Chairman of the Board of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria [Global Fund], who is related to Gates.

In April 2017, Richard J. Hatchett, who was the former director of BARDA, a member of the Homeland Security Council under George W. Bush, et du United States National Security Council, under Obama, became the full-time CEO.

Operation Warp Speed

ModeRNA and COVID-19 vaccine

In January 2020, CEPI announced that it would fund the manufacture of an mRNA vaccine by Moderna. [27]

In March 2020, during a White House meeting between the Trump administration and pharmaceutical executives, Stéphane Bancel and Moderna CEO told Trump the company could have a COVID-19 vaccine ready in a few months.

The next day, FDA approved moderna vaccine candidate clinical trials.

And, later, Moderna receives an investment of 483 million dollars from Operation Warp Speed.

In April 2020, while, Moderna share price rises following news of impending phase human trials 2 for its potential COVID-19 vaccine, Bancel’s participation of approximately 9% grows to over $ 1 billion. [28]

Mesures et accélération de mise sur le marché des vaccins

In August 2020, eight companies are selected for funding of approximately 11 billions of dollars, in order to accelerate the development and preparation of the manufacture of their respective candidate vaccines.

Vaccine developers, the different vaccine technologies and treatments receiving government research funding were Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca, Modern, Novavax, Merck, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline.

In 2015, Novavax receives a grant from 89 million dollars from the Bill Foundation & Melinda Gates, to support the development of a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus in infants, via maternal vaccination.

May 2020, Novarax receives funding from 388 million dollars from CEPI. [29]

And, June 2020, CEPI announces investing a total of 383 millions of dollars, in a partnership with AstraZeneca for the production of 300 million doses of his vaccine. [30]

Moderna has signed small volume supply contracts with governments, pricing a two-dose regimen up to 74 $.

Johnson & Johnson agreed to supply the United States 100 million doses of his vaccine for over $ 1 billion from the federal government, which implies a price per dose of approximately 10 dollars.

As part of an agreement announced last month, the United States agreed to pay Pfizer Inc. and German BioNTech 1,95 billion dollars for 100 million doses, which suggests a price of 19,50 dollars per dose and 39 dollars for two doses.

AstraZeneca, as for her, agrees to provide 300 million doses in the United States for 1,2 billion dollars; or a cost of 4 dollars a dose.

Security concerns

However, attempts to speed up approval of the Covid-19 vaccine, such as with Operation Warp Speed, have raised concerns, as for security.

Thereby, major vaccine developers committed on 8 September 2020, submit their candidate vaccines for approval; and, only after, phase trials 3 shows the effectiveness of a vaccine.

The group of nine companies includes Moderna, AstraZeneca and the ongoing collaboration between Pfizer and BioNTech.

Senior executives at Merck, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, Sanofi and Novavax have also signed this commitment.

However, after the announcement of the first results of the trials of the Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine candidates, promoters go back on their guarantees.

FDA emergency use authorization

And, they affirmed, that they were moving forward with an emergency use authorization from the FDA; based only on preliminary results and before completion of phase testing 3. [31]

Around the same period, senior U.S. health officials accused the FDA of making independent decisions, scientific.

In August 2020, after Trump falsely touted the treatment as a breakthrough, Stephen Hahn, the commissioner of the FDA, distorts data relating to the capacity of blood plasma, taken from patients with Covid-19.

Hahn issued a partial apology; more, he didn't completely correct his misleading remarks.

Likewise, Health Secretary Alex Azar made an almost identical false claim,that the blood plasma may reduce 35% Covid-19 deaths.

And, he did not retract his words as well. [32]

The main candidates for the Covid-19 vaccine and unfinished trials

The 23 September 2020, William A. Haseltine, professor at Harvard Medical School, wrote to Forbes how modern, Pfizer, AstraZeneca et Johnson & Johnson, all companies funded or supported by the Bill Foundation & Melinda Gates, are the main candidates for the completion of a Covid-19 vaccine.

And, that the data is likely to be published in the coming months.

These companies have published their vaccine trial protocols.

This unusually transparent action, during a major drug trial, rather raised unexpected concerns during a close inspection of the protocols.

These trials seem designed to prove that their vaccines work and even if the effects measured are minimal. [33]

In December 2020, no mRNA vaccine had completed phase III clinical trials, or has not been authorized, for prophylactic use against COVID-19.

However, under emergency use authorizations from the FDA and regulatory agencies in other countries, Moderna and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines approved for commercialization. [34]

Vaccine industry

In 2021, Pfizer plans to achieve 15 billion dollars in revenue from the Covid-19 vaccine, with a profit margin of 20%, that it will share with BioNTech.

Moderna expects to win 18,4 billions of dollars; more, she did not disclose her profit margin.

Analysts Predict Covid-19 Vaccine Market to Reach 10 billion dollars per year.

Analysts predict that vaccine sales in 2021 of Moderna and Novavax to overtake those of the three largest vaccine producers that dominated the market before Covid-19: Merck, GSK et Sanofi.

They have not yet brought a Covid-19 vaccine to the market. [35]

As Bill Gates sums it up:

'Probably, vaccines have saved more lives than any other means.

'If we can, take vaccines and apply them further in the cancer sector, it completely changes the numbers; because the cancer market is, this represents more than 10 times the R&D [Research and development], more than 10 times the expenses, in growth potential.’ [36]

Sure From the order of

By David Livingstone, the 3 avril 2021


Article references from David Livingstone


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[4] Schmuhl, Hans Walter (2008). Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics, 1927–1945. [Dordrecht, Netherlands]: Springer. p. 87.

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[8] “The Latest: Ex-CDC boss denies woman’s groping allegation”. Associated Press. From

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[10] Garde, Damien (September 13, 2016). “Ego, ambition, and turmoil: Inside one of biotech’s most secretive startups”. Stat. Damien Garde. “Ego, ambition, and turmoil: Inside one of biotech’s most secretive startups.” STAT (September 13, 2016). From; Garde, Damien (January 10, 2017). “Lavishly funded Moderna hits safety problems in bold bid to revolutionize medicine”. Stat. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2020. From


[11] Andrew Pollack (March 21, 2013). “AstraZeneca Makes a Bet on an Untested Technique”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2013. From

[12] Garde, Damien (September 13, 2016). “Ego, ambition, and turmoil: Inside one of biotech’s most secretive startups”. Stat. Damien Garde. “Ego, ambition, and turmoil: Inside one of biotech’s most secretive startups.” STAT (September 13, 2016). Retrieved from


[13] Garde, Damien (September 13, 2016). “Ego, ambition, and turmoil: Inside one of biotech’s most secretive startups”. Stat. Damien Garde. “Ego, ambition, and turmoil: Inside one of biotech’s most secretive startups.” STAT (September 13, 2016). Retrieved from

[14] “Research not fit to print”. Nature. 34 (115). February 5, 2016. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2020.  Retrieved from]

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[17] Mukherjee, His (December 8, 2018). “Moderna Had the Biggest Biotech IPO Ever. Here’s What That Says About the Industry’s Future”. Fortune. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.  Retrieved from

[18] Elizabeth Cohen (November 30, 2020). “Moderna applies for FDA authorization for its Covid-19 vaccine”. CNN. Retrieved from

[19] “Moderna’s Stock Rally Makes Bob Langer a Billionaire.” CEO Today (Nov 13, 2020).

[20] Trafton, Anne (October 9, 2007). “David H. Koch gives $100 million to MIT for cancer research”. MIT News Office. Retrieved from


[21] Evgeny Morozov. “Jeffrey Epstein’s Intellectual Enabler.” The New Republic (August 22, 2019). Retrieved from

[22] Max Larkin. “Embattled After Epstein, Media Lab Director Joi Ito Gets Public Support.” Wbur (August 28, 2019). Retrieved from

[23] [24] Emily Flitter & James B. Stewart. “Bill Gates Met With Jeffrey Epstein Many Times, Despite His Past.” New York Times (October 12, 2019).

[25]  John Vidal. “Are Gates and Rockefeller using their influence to set agenda in poor states?” The Guadian (Janunary 15, 2016). Retrieved from


[26] Peter Coy. “The Road to a Coronavirus Vaccine Runs Through Oslo.” Bloomberg News (February 13, 2020).

[27] “Moderna Announces Funding Award from CEPI to Accelerate Development of Messenger RNA (mRNA) Vaccine Against Novel Coronavirus.” Press Release (January 23, 2020). Retrieved from

[28] Tognini, Giacomo (3 April 2020). “Moderna CEO Stéphane Bancel Becomes A Billionaire As Stock Jumps On Coronavirus Vaccine News”. Forbes. Retrieved from

[29] “Novavax Jumps on $388 Million Funding From Vaccine Coalition (1).” Bloomberg Law (May 11, 2020). Retrieved from


[30] “CEPI partners with AstraZeneca to manufacture 300 million globally accessible doses of COVID-19 vaccine.” CEPI (June 4, 2020). Retrieved from

[31] Safura Abdool Karim (December 18, 2020). “Emergency use authorization of Covid-19 vaccines could hinder global access to them”. STAT. Retrieved from

[32] Lev Facher. “Amid broad mistrust of FDA and Trump administration, drug companies seek to reassure public about Covid-19 vaccine safety.” Stat (September 8, 2020). Retrieved from


[33] William A. Haseltine “Covid-19 Vaccine Protocols Reveal That Trials Are Designed To Succeed.” Forbes (September 23, 2020).

[34] Singh, Jerome Amir; Upshur, Ross E G (2020). “The granting of emergency use designation to COVID-19 candidate vaccines: implications for COVID-19 vaccine trials”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from; Safura Abdool Karim (December 18, 2020). “Emergency use authorization of Covid-19 vaccines could hinder global access to them”. STAT. Retrieved from

[35] “Coronavirus and the money behind vaccines.” Financial Times (March 10, 2021). Retrieved from = 0BuCt2vtVjc

[36] “Coronavirus and the money behind vaccines.” Financial Times (March 10, 2021). Retrieved from = 0BuCt2vtVjc

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